Glossary

Framely is a component based declarative platform and repository for building conversational user interface for cooperative users to access your services. It is a low code platform for building personalized service, include chatbot and corresponding backend. The chatbot and backend defined on the platform will be first code-generated into Kotlin source code, which can be compiled and executed on top of Framely runtime anywhere.

Abbreviation

CUI

Conversational user interface

CUX

Conversational user experience

GUI

Graphical user interface

SQL

Structure query language

RDBMS

Relational database management system

API

Application programming interface, typically in restful.

Declarative vs Imperative

Imperative

Builders describe how things should be done and computer simply follow that.

Declarative

Builders describe what are needed and computer figure out how to do it.

NLP Basics

Syntax

The arrangement rules of words and phrases to create well-formed sentences in a language.

Semantics

The meaning of a word, phrase, sentence, or text without context. In Framely, the semantics is defined semantic frames, or just frames.

Pragmatics

Study of how context contributes to meaning, or meaning under context. We use the frame to express meaning under context as well.

Cooperative principle

This assumes users are engaged in the conversation with bot for a common goal: user want to access some services that bot want to provide, thus it is user's interest to get what they want in the lowest effort possible.

Module

Interaction logic

Defines how interaction should be carried out based on users input event.

Application logic

Also known as business logic or more commonly service, defines how services should be delivered based on the user requirement (aggregated user input). It is very common that interaction logic reflects underlying application logic.

Frontend

User interacting application are commonly partitioned into frontend and backend. Where frontend manages the user interaction, and backend models data and application logic. And backend and frontend communicate via predefined-defined APIs. Frontend includes presentation layer and interaction logic layer, or frontend can also be partitioned into schema level and language level.

Backend

Framely assume backend hosts all the data and application logic for different frontends, chatbot is one such frontend. Backend are typically just implementation of restful APIs on top of database. Popular open source databases includes mysql and postgresql. Backend can be thought provider for services (or implemented the function declared in the services)

Chatbot

An end user facing application or CUI frontend, user can access information and service through conversations in text or voice instead of a graphical user interface. All user facing application can be generally built in three layers: language, interaction and schema.

Component

The key design goal for Framely is to support compose the chatbot out of the reusable component so that builder does not always need to start from scratch. Notice components can be used to build bigger and bigger component. And some component contains service, which defines interface to a set of functions. Framely assumes all chatbot functionalities can be composed of the smaller components, just like Lego system. This allows maximal reuse. In Framely, frame, or semantic structure, is centerpiece. It defines the common goal can be had between user and chatbot and information needed by that goal. Depending on what annotation we add to frame, they can form CUI components or backend components.

CUI component

CUI component defines how chatbot can collect user intention for some reason so that different businesses in the same sector do not need to build the same CUI behavior over and over again. This is done by add dialog annotation to frames, which describe the dynamic behavior of frame filling. Also known as library.

Backend component

Backend component provide the structured storage for frontend, when used with CUI component, business only need to supply their data to provide the corresponding services to their end users. Also known as service.

Backoffice

Back office: interface for business admin/operator to interact with backend so that business can provide service to user.

Stakeholders for entire application (chatbot, backend and back office), there are no one to one mapping between the account system on platform, support of backoffice:

Project

Chatbot and backend are all project on platform. Project also include the chatbot component (old library) and backend component.

Layers

Schema layer

Interface to service, or data structure needed to invoke the service as both input and output, are defined at schema level. Application logic is also defined in this layer, typically as the backend providers, some time simply via SQL on Framely, some time externally via restful APIs.

Interaction layer

Defines interaction logic, or how input parameter needed by service should be collected from user via conversational interactions, at an language independent fashion. The decision in this lever include whether to prompt user for given slot, whether to give recommendation when prompt, and what to do if input validation is failed, for example.

Language layer

(presentation) Includes language related aspects like expression for dialog understanding and template for text generation.

Service

The interface for collection of functions that chatbot/frontend can use to access business logic.

Function

The smallest unit of functionality that backend can provide, which returns result based on input parameters. Functions are used to providing recommendations during conversation, or access service after conversation interaction. Function signature consists of name and types of the input parameters, as well as type of return.

Native function

Implementation for these functions are defined in Kotlin, some time implicitly in runtime.

Restful Function

Implementation for these functions simply forward the input parameter to restful endpoints, and convert the json result back to specified data type.

SQL Function

Implementation for this function are based on stored procedure supported by provider database.

Provider

Provider provide access to implementation for the services. Backend are simply a collection of providers. Framely currently provide postgrest provider and restful provider.

Postgrest Provider

In addition to access, Postgrest provider are used to define both application logic (via SQL in form of stored procedure) and database schema needed by such logic declaratively on Framely. This allows builder to define reusable backend components including both UI and backend (both data and business logic), with the dialog annotation, storage annotation as well as backoffice annotation.

Restful Provider

Service can also be accessed via restful API, with restful provider one can describe the mapping of the collected input parameter to actual Json format needed by endpoint.

Runtime

The core of chatbot is to build common understanding of what user want through conversation, connect user to the right service and generate the natural text for channel to rendering to user. These core functionalities are provided by Framely runtime as APIs, so each chatbot can focus on what information to collect and leave the actual information collect to runtime. Runtime also contains session management and dispatcher.

Dialog Manager(DM)

Dialog manager is brain of the chatbot, and is responsible for calling DU with generated dialog expectation to get the frame event, and consult the dialog annotations to decide how to respond to user (in terms of semantic frames and language independent way) for next turn, and use text generator to translate the frame into natural text reply in the language that user speaks. Turn by turn, dialog manger will figure out what user wants, and connect user with the service they care. Runtime is a fully decomposed system, with DM operating solely on DU output, and given DU output, DM output is entirely independent of user utterance, and given DM output, text generation is independent of DU output(DM input). This is important to make DM language independent.

Dialog Understanding (DU)

A major part of runtime is convert what user said into semantic structure representation, or frame, given the dialog expectation. In Framely, DU is fully controlled by the context dependent expression exemplars, for both initial design and hot fix.

Dialog Expectation

Information can be used to change how user utterance be understood. For example, if DU expect a song name, then "Beijing welcome you" will be recognized as a song and "Beijing" in there will not be recognized as city; if DU does not expect a song name, "Beijing" in there should be recognized as city. Dialog is used to summarize the conversational history so far, in terms of understanding, or given dialog expectation, the conversational history does not provide additional useful information toward understanding of the user input for the current turn. Dialog expectation is automatically used by DU for this purpose, and builder does not need to worry about it.

Frame Event

The semantic structure representing what user said, converted by DU under given dialog expectation. The Frame event can be at semantic level or pragmatic level.

Text Generation

To be able to easily interact with users in different language, we use text generation module to translate the same semantics into different natural text. For now we focus on the template based generation.

Session Manager

This is used to manage the user session, so that each turn contains all the history information.

Session

A session is a series of back and forth turns between user and chatbot to address user's needs at some point in time. Session can be started by user or chatbot (but do not be confused with who will have the first message, it is possible chatbot have the first message in the session that is started by user, particularly for live chat cases), and it has a closure, explicitly (by mutual agreement) or implicitly (by time out). There can be many sessions between chatbot and a particular user over time.

Dispatcher

This manages the messages from channels and decide whether it is chatbot or human supports is responsible for the conversation.

Input on Platform

Code expression Input

Code expressions are the Kotlin expression or encoding of Kotlin expression that can be evaluated dynamically by runtime. Code expression can be used independently or embedded in templates. Since the declarative configuration of the chatbot on the platform are compiled into Kotlin source code, so it is possible to use arbitrary Kotlin code expression in some predefined places like condition definition. As more detailed example, in value recommendation, we need to use code expression to indicate which function should be called, with what parameters, and how different function is composed to provide the desired list of instances for user to choose from.

SQL function body input

On Postgrest provider, code expression with auto complete set for input parameter name, slot name, and then sql keywords.

Json input

There are couple places where Json input box are needed, for example, the source of value recommendation can be a Json representation of partially filled intent.

Template

In both prompt and response, we need to specify what chatbot say to user. This is accomplished by template. Template is just string with code expression embedded in it. One way of encoding the embedded code expression is to surround them with $$, the code expression inside $$ will be evaluated to string and then concatenated with rest of static content to form the final message for user. Restful function body are template.

Channel

The same chatbot can interact with user from different channel (facebook messenger, WeChat public account, etc). Conversation are conducted between chatbot and user by exchange messages in the channel. Channels come with two different capabilities: some channel can only render text messages, particularly these channel based on speakers or without a display, other channel can read media, image or video in some degree. There are two different kinds of channels, live channel and messaging channel.

Live Channel

User on live channel can not be contacted asynchronously by chatbot, conversation session on the live channel can only be started by user, most web channels belongs to this category.

Messaging Channel

User on message channel can be reached by chatbot, or conversation session on the message channel can be started by chatbot. Example of message channel is RCS or Facebook messenger.

Messages

User exchange messages with chatbot/human agent to get things done. There are three different dimensions when it comes to the messages.

Text message

Text messages can be rendered in any channels, including in speaker that doesn't have display.

Media message

Media messages are best rendered in the channels with display, like RCS and Facebook Messenger.

Generic message

Generic messages are defined in Framely channel, and they will be rendered into all Framely supported channels on the best effort basis.

Channel specific message

The channel specific messages are defined in the specific channel, these messages will be chosen as reply to users for that channel instead of already defined generic messages. Channel specific message will be supported later.

Simple message

Simple messages render information in a single frame.

List messages

List messages render information in the list of frames.

Support

When chatbot does not know what to do or when user demand talking to a human agent, we can forward the conversation to support system, the default one is open source system Chatwoot. There are two different modes of support: live chat and messaging.

Live Chat

Under the live chat mode, it is assumed that conversation will get into a queue for human agent, where user will be waiting for the human agent become available. When human agent become available, user can expect his message will be replied in reasonable time frame before his issues is either resolved and an alternative is suggested/agreed upon.

Messaging

Under this mode, user will send message, and expect some human agent will eventually come back with reply. At mean time, he will move on to other things.

Roles

Builder

The people use platform to define chatbot and backend, usually hired by business.

End-User

The people use chatbot to get things done.

Operator

The team that user the back office to deliver the information/service to end user.

Admin

Admin is a special kind of operator, they have full control of the data in the backend.

As general rule, builder use platform, business operator and admin use backoffice. End-user use chatbot. And business admin may or may not hold the admin account on the Framely platform.

Reusability

Reusability is the one of the key design goal for Framely to help business to reduce the cost of building personalized services. There are four different mechanisms available.

Import

Instead of build functionality from scratch, on Framely, the first choice of acquired functionality is import the relevant components. Where there are right components, builder only need to provide the business dependent data to service their users.

Clone

Clone is another way of reuse. Instead of build chatbot from empty slate, one start from exist chatbot by clone it.

Implement

We support inherit/implement on frames and intents, so that we can reuse behavior by adding to existing frame instead of building frame from scratch.

Compose

We can use frame as slot of larger frame, to get bigger and bigger behavior.

Deployment

The project, chatbot or backend, defined on the Framely have two deploy options.

Framely Hosted

When configured to be Framely hosted, there will be a button "deploy" that can trigger the new definition be deployed on the Framely cloud to serve the user traffic.

Private Deploy

When configured to be private-deployed, there will be a button "export" that can trigger the code generated for the project. The code can then be used by your devops team to bring up the service.

Version Control

Framely platform have a version control built in, so that it is easy for builder to collaborate on building chatbot. The version control is modeled after git for the nested structures.

Branch

One always works with a branch. Each builder can keep one active branch for each project.

Master

There is target branch where every one merge their result into. This is the version that get deployed.

Base

Each branch has a base.

Rebase

When master moved to new version, we need to rebase first.

Commit

Commit the current change will result in a new version that can be reviewed and merged into master:

Review

Before your change can be merged into master, it needs to be reviewed by your peers.

Pull Request

Pull request to indicate that you want to merge commit into master.

Approve

Only approved change can be merged into master.

Merge

Master will have your change after merged.

Close

You can discard your change by close it.

Org

Builders belong to organization, and builders from the organization can collaborate freely. Framely charge organization instead of builder.

Type

Framely is statically typed. Type are declared for every slot, every function input parameter and every function return. Entity, frame and intent are all considered to be type on Framely.

Statically typed

Statically typed is a programming language characteristic in which variable types are explicitly declared and thus are determined at compile time. This lets the compiler decide whether a given variable can perform the actions requested from it or not. Static typing associates types with variables, not with values.

Generic type

Framely also support generic type, where builder can define behavior first and actual type is decided later.

Definition

By default, intent, frame and entity can be claimed to be definition, in which case, we generate code for them. When definition is turned off, we do not generate code for them instead assume the corresponding code already exist somewhere.

Identifier

Identifiers are language independent label for semantics in Framely, that include entity type, entity instance, frames. Identifiers are denoted in the full qualified fashion in order to reduce the naming conflict.

Intent

Intents are simply the tasks that user accomplish through chatbot. It defines what user have to say to indicate that he/she wants something, and which actual function to invoke for that task.

System Intent

Tasks needed by runtime to manipulate the common understanding what is user want to achieve.

System action

Task that does not have expression trigger.

Frame

Frame captures the structure meaning that user expressed in their utterance. Intent is essentially frame with actions attached to it. Frame are understood using abstractive methods using machine learning models. Frame can contain one or more slots, with entity or frame types. There are two type of frames: language aware and language ignorant. Frame supports both has-a (composition) and is-a (inheritance) relationship on frame. One can add dialog annotation to frame (then became a CUI frame), but it is not required that frame has to have dialog annotations. Similarly, one can add storage/backoffice annotation to a frame in the backend, but it is not required.

Subframe

A subframe inherits every thing from parent frame.

Global

Frame can be declared as global. A global frame can occur in more than one intent/frame as the type for one of slot, just like regular frame, but we will only interact with user once to fill this frame in a session when it is first referenced (if not persisted), and all the subsequent reference via different slot of the same type will access the same information. All slot of the global frame type should be declared as never ask (I can understand call it never ask or always ask are both problematic as we don't know whether it will be asked in the context, but we should NOT have conditional asking at least). The interaction on these slots are controlled by the global frame itself, not slot.

Entity linking

Builder can map an interface frame to an entity, then have one subframe for this interface for every instance of the entity type. This reuses the expressions defined on the entity and its instances. The result is the utterance are recognized toward meaning using both dialog understanding (extractive and abstractive) methods.

Entity

In Framely, entity is a type of item and element that is relevant to the user's intent/frame, for example, city is an entity with instances like Beijing, New York, for example. Entities define typed data that can be extracted from the utterance and is essential to complete a user's required action. Entity instances are understood based on extractive methods. Entity has one or more type expressions.

Entity Instance

entity instance is an entity of that type. It has a label that is language independent, and then one or more language dependent expressions (value expression).

  • Identifier
  • Normalized: standard output to user
  • Expression: what user say and system could understand

Parent Entity

If B is parent of current entity, every instance of current entity is also instance of the B.

Schema

Schema is a static view what frame is about: common goal and information needed by that goal. Anecdotally, there are two types of frames: verb frames and noun frames. Verb frames are related to intent which describe what user wants or what provider serves (they have to agree), and noun frames are essentially composite entity. Frames commonly has slots (has-a relationship), which can be of entity or frame type, that defines some aspects of this frame.

Annotation

The desired dynamic behavior of component is declaratively defined in form of annotations. These are designed as "control" so builder to control the desired behavior for their chatbots. Annotations can be defined on the frame level which defines behavior of the entire frame, or slot level which define the slot specific behavior.

Dialog annotation

It's used to define the conversational behavior of chatbot.

Storage annotation

It's used to define the database schema needed by backend component, which can then be used to create compatible database to serve needed backend.

Backoffice annotation

It's used to define the user experience of the back office for back end.

CUI component

The main purpose of CUI component is to agree on frame, what user want or the common goal, and fill the frame, or find values for the slots. This is done by two basic components: slot filling and frame filling.

Slot Filling

Slot filling is one of core CUI component. Since the goal of the chatbot is figuring out what user want in form of frame filling. And the basic of the frame filling is to fill a slot, or find out user's preference on a slot. There are many aspects of the conversation that builder can control:

Boolean Gate

A slot CUI component that is used to give user control in terms of whether there should be conversation about certain aspects: "Are you are a member?" can be used to safeguard a list of questions that chatbot might ask to verify users membership and go on with a different UI path for deliver service to user. Boolean gate is specified by one or more text generation templates (which typically is chosen randomly) and multiple positive and negative expression exemplars.

Ask Strategy

Decide how this slot should be filled.

  • User mention first: only talk about it if user mention it first.
  • Never: never ask, instead get its value from API
  • Always: always ask user.
  • Conditional: only ask user preference under some condition. Condition need to be specified.

Value Recommendation (VR)

In addition to ask user for the value, it is often helpful to give them recommendations so that it is easy for user to pick the options that actually works.

Value Check (VC)

Before we commit to a given value, it is useful to consult the service to make sure it is valid option.

Confirmation

Sometimes it is useful to ask user twice before we move on.

Transition

This allows one to define condition and action under the come context of this frame.

Expression (exemplar)

All semantics in Framely can be referenced in multiple languages, and expression is the only way for builder to influence how user utterance is converted into semantic frames. By attaching expression exemplars to each semantic under some context, builder indicate user utterance that are similar to expression exemplars under the same context should be converted to the corresponding frame.

These expression exemplars are used by NLU model to hotfix the understanding issues. Notice expression exemplar are normally only useful under the given context, so it is easy for Framely to convert the same utterance into different frame representation under different context. Builder can provide expression exemplar for any semantics: do-not-care, negation, positive and negative under yes-no questions, for example, There are different kinds of expression:

Type expression (currently known as alias on platform)

The example of how entity, frame types are mentioned in different languages.

Value expression (currently known as expression on platform)

The example of how entity and frame instance are mentioned in different languages.

Pronoun Expression (experimental)

For each slot, entity, builder can specify which pronoun is used to refer these, so that builder do not need to supply partial expression.

Dialog Context

Dialog understanding is always conducted under context, and context is simply the stack of frame that is currently active. So if we are interacting about frame A, and drill into one of its slot of type(frame) B, then the context is [A, B], with B on the top of the stack.

Context independent expression

Expression defined in the expression tab for intent are context independent, and they can be triggered in any context, or DU will convert the user utterances similar to the these expression exemplars into frame and send to dialog management for further processing.

Context dependent expression

All other expression defined on the Framely platform are considered context dependent, where its expected context is determined by where the expression exemplar is defined. DU will convert expressions similar to these exemplars into corresponding frames only when the current dialog context matches the context where the exemplar is defined. For example, positive expression exemplar under confirmation on the slot will only be used to convert similar user utterance into corresponding frame when chatbot start the confirmation on that slot.

Text generation

To make building multi-language chatbot, builder can specify text generation templates to create desired sentence for user to make it easy for user get to their goal quickly and effortlessly.

Prompt

Use these templates to create question to guide user towards their goal. Examples include: "where do you want to go?", and "Are you sure you want to it to be extremely spicy?"

Response

The services that user want are generally accessed via some form APIs, and result from the APIs will be some structured information. Response are the template to turn these structured result into natural text.

System CUI components

One of the design goal of Framely is to automatically handle many conversational issues: where user digress, how we bring them back on track, or where there are ambiguity, how we disambiguate through dynamically scheduled clarification. Ideally we want to make sure that builder can get these behaviors without doing anything. And the Framely solution is based on aspect oriented programming. It does so by adding additional behavior (via system CUI components) to existing code (an advice) without modifying the code itself, instead separately specifying which code is modified via a "pointcut" specification (triggered by runtime automatically). The common system CUI are, and as time goes by, we will surely have more of these to enrich the default chatbot behavior.

Clarification

Often time, user might say something that dialog understanding did not fully understand, for example, there are multiple possibilities. These are the time when we can trigger System intent to engage in the conversation for user to clarify what they really meant. There are couple variants of this:

Value clarification

During the slot filling, particularly when we try to find value from the conversation history, there might be multiple values that can be used to fill the slot. This CUI component is used to ask user decide which one is what they want.

Slot clarification

When user mentioned a value that can fill more than one open slot, we can use this to figure out which slot user want to fill.

Intent clarification

When DU can not commit to one understanding, we can use this component to get user commit to one intent.

SlotUpdate

User can update a slot with new value.

Boolean Gate

Interaction with user so that they can decide whether we need to collect predefined slots.

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